Hormones excreted in the urine
1. Sex hormones.
(i). Derivatives of testosterones- Androsterone, 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) and dehydroepiandrosterone.
(ii). Derivatives of estrogens- Oestrone and oestriol mainly as mainly as glucuronides or sulphates but slightly in free uncombined form.
(a). During Menstruation- Estrogen excretion starts rising from the resting phase and becomes maximum at the time of ovulation (14th day) and then falls.
(b). During Pregnancy- Excretion of estrogen starts rising from the first week and reaches the maximum just before the onset of parturition. After delivery it falls but traces may still be found in the free uncombined form.
(iii). Derivatives of progesterone- Pregnanediol-as glucuronide.
(a). During Menstruation- It appears in the premenstrual phase of menstruation but not in the follicular phase. The excretion starts one or two days after ovulation and becomes maximum about a week before the onset of menstruation and ceases 2-3 days before the period comes.
(b). During Pregnancy- During pregnancy much larger quantities of progesterone are excreted, the amount being maximum during the eight and ninth months. It falls before parturition.
(iv). Placental gonadotrophins.
2. Adrenocorticoid hormones and Neutral 17-ketosteroids (They are chiefly derivatives of androgens i.e, androsterone and similar substances derived both from the adrenal cortex and testes in males and from only adrenal cortex in females. Hence, in males, the excretion is higher than in females.
3. Pituitary hormones- Following hormones are excreted in the urine:
(a). Antidiuretic hormones,
(b). Somatotrophic hormone, and
(c). Thyrotrophic hormones- Its excretion increases after thyroidectomy.
4. Thyroid hormones- In hyperthyroidism with increased secretion of thyroid hormones, excess hormones are excreted through the kidney and also through mothers milk.